VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL PDF



Vray Interior Lighting Tutorial Pdf

Nighttime Interior Lighting QuickStart V-Ray 3.6 for. 10/10/2018 · In this tutorial we’ll go over lighting techniques for a nighttime architectural interior scene using IES lights and sphere lights. To follow this tutorial, you will need to have the V-Ray for Rhino plugin installed. This tutorial page is a companion that goes with the QuickStart video posted on our YouTube channel and is available here:, For this tutorial, keep the Sky Model to Hosek et al, keep the Turbidity to 3, and set the Size Multiplier to 15. In the Shadows toolbar, change the Time of day to late afternoon to make adding interior lights easier.. General Lighting with V-Ray Sphere Lights. Next, general lighting inside the house will be added using V-Ray Sphere Lights.Move the camera to get a better view of the second floor..

Exterior Lighting QuickStart V-Ray 3.6 for SketchUp

Realistically Light and Render Interior Scenes Using 3ds. VRay Basic Lighting - Downloadable DVD - Easy step-by-step 3Ds Max VRay Interior Lighting & Rendering - Video Training. Learn to make Photorealistic Images!, 26/06/2018 · Interior Night lighting with V-Ray HDRI - Duration: 35:15. Mostafa Mahmoud 30,627 views. 35:15 . 3Ds Max 2018 Bedroom Interior Tutorial Modeling Design Vray Render + Photoshop - ….

Architectural visualization tutorials, 3d models and more! Here is a list of 15 vray tutorials that I think everybody should read. It covers everything from materials and … VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL – Rendering with Daylight in SketchUp! In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure!

Lighting & Setting up a Realistic Render with Vray and 3ds Max by Alseso Web: www.aleso3d.com . In this tutorial you will learn how to lighting and setting up a realistic render with Vray 2.0 and 3ds max 2011, also how to use ies lights, setting lighting with vray sun and vray sky and using vray physical camera, and see how you can set up your render. 26/06/2018 · Interior Night lighting with V-Ray HDRI - Duration: 35:15. Mostafa Mahmoud 30,627 views. 35:15 . 3Ds Max 2018 Bedroom Interior Tutorial Modeling Design Vray Render + Photoshop - …

17/04/2018 · In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure! This will help you get your lighting 20/07/2018 · VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL – Rendering with Daylight in SketchUp! - Duration: 15:16. TheSketchUpEssentials 85,412 views. 15:16. We drove these electric cars until they DIED!

For this tutorial, keep the Sky Model to Hosek et al, keep the Turbidity to 3, and set the Size Multiplier to 15. In the Shadows toolbar, change the Time of day to late afternoon to make adding interior lights easier.. General Lighting with V-Ray Sphere Lights. Next, general lighting inside the house will be added using V-Ray Sphere Lights.Move the camera to get a better view of the second floor. 20/09/2019 · This page introduces a number tutorials for V-Ray for 3ds Max. Preparation for Rendering. These tutorials explain how to prepare a scene for rendering under different circumstances.

of the render engine (VRay in this tutorial) is using real world scaling to mimic real world conditions. Let’s start with a light... Doing High Dynamic Range renderings just needs one light source: the HDR file. The light we have to use is the VrayDomeLight, which guarantees nice lighting, shadows and caustics. In this 3d Tutorial you will learn everything you need to know in order to render realistic images with 3dsmax and Vray. I will cover every aspect of the process, so you can get familiar with the tools and steps for a realistic 3d interior render. I will explain how you can get the same type of lighting …

Lighting & Setting up a Realistic Render with Vray and 3ds Max by Alseso Web: www.aleso3d.com . In this tutorial you will learn how to lighting and setting up a realistic render with Vray 2.0 and 3ds max 2011, also how to use ies lights, setting lighting with vray sun and vray sky and using vray physical camera, and see how you can set up your render. In this 3d Tutorial you will learn everything you need to know in order to render realistic images with 3dsmax and Vray. I will cover every aspect of the process, so you can get familiar with the tools and steps for a realistic 3d interior render. I will explain how you can get the same type of lighting …

Tutorial HDR scene setup (3D Studio Max VRay)

Vray interior lighting tutorial pdf

V-Ray for Revit free tutorials. The interior illuminated with natural light that we are going to render will begin to use only the photon mapping . Precondition 'that is present in the scene one or more ' photometric light sources that our case and the ' represented by the daylight system with mr sun and mrsky which are respectively a source of direct and indirect lighting . In this algorithm the indirect light is achieved, Night Interior Rendering Tutorial (using vray and 3d max) the most suitable for the job is a planar vray light. For this interior, a multiplier of 4 and a pale orange hue for color where all what I needed. I got a bit lazy and did not model this lighting fixture entirely, and I just assigned a vray light material to the part that is emitting light; if I wanted to do everything from a to z.

Lighting & Setting up a Realistic Render with Vray and 3ds Max

Vray interior lighting tutorial pdf

V-Ray for Revit free tutorials. Night Interior Rendering Tutorial (using vray and 3d max) the most suitable for the job is a planar vray light. For this interior, a multiplier of 4 and a pale orange hue for color where all what I needed. I got a bit lazy and did not model this lighting fixture entirely, and I just assigned a vray light material to the part that is emitting light; if I wanted to do everything from a to z Architectural visualization tutorials, 3d models and more! Here is a list of 15 vray tutorials that I think everybody should read. It covers everything from materials and ….

Vray interior lighting tutorial pdf


19/02/2010 · Discover the secrets behind properly lighting and rendering interior scenes with 3ds Max and Vray in this easy to follow, step by step walkthrough. Scene setup, modeling, texturing, lighting, and rendering for realistic output will all be discussed, so there is literally something in here for everyone! Additional Files/ Plugins: In this 3d Tutorial you will learn everything you need to know in order to render realistic images with 3dsmax and Vray. I will cover every aspect of the process, so you can get familiar with the tools and steps for a realistic 3d interior render. I will explain how you can get the same type of lighting …

19/02/2010 · Discover the secrets behind properly lighting and rendering interior scenes with 3ds Max and Vray in this easy to follow, step by step walkthrough. Scene setup, modeling, texturing, lighting, and rendering for realistic output will all be discussed, so there is literally something in here for everyone! Additional Files/ Plugins: V-Ray for Revit lets architects render professional-quality, high-resolution images directly from their Revit model. Browse our V-Ray for Revit tutorials. Learn advanced techniques to create stunning projects.

The interior illuminated with natural light that we are going to render will begin to use only the photon mapping . Precondition 'that is present in the scene one or more ' photometric light sources that our case and the ' represented by the daylight system with mr sun and mrsky which are respectively a source of direct and indirect lighting . In this algorithm the indirect light is achieved Lighting & Setting up a Realistic Render with Vray and 3ds Max by Alseso Web: www.aleso3d.com . In this tutorial you will learn how to lighting and setting up a realistic render with Vray 2.0 and 3ds max 2011, also how to use ies lights, setting lighting with vray sun and vray sky and using vray physical camera, and see how you can set up your render.

17/04/2018 · In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure! This will help you get your lighting V-Ray for SketchUp is a rendering engine equipped with Global Illumination (GI), which helps the users setup the lighting for entire scene easily. So they don't have to spend a lot of time adjusting lighting location and brightness.

20/09/2019 · This page introduces a number tutorials for V-Ray for 3ds Max. Preparation for Rendering. These tutorials explain how to prepare a scene for rendering under different circumstances. 23/06/2011 · VRay Render Settings for Interior Visualisation VRay Render Settings for Interior Visualisation By the area In Vray Global Switches, under lighting, set default lights to off. This turns off the 3 point lighting system Autodesk 3ds Max has as default, now you have full control over all lights that you add to the scene. You can also turn displacement off (Optional). Under the geometry

Introduction. This tutorial covers the basics of lighting an interior scene using V-Ray in SketchUp. It will build off of the previous Exterior Lighting Quickstart and include a variety of V-Ray Lights for both day and night renders. By the end, you will gain an understanding of the general lighting workflow for interiors … Architectural visualization tutorials, 3d models and more! Here is a list of 15 vray tutorials that I think everybody should read. It covers everything from materials and …

10/10/2018 · In this tutorial we’ll go over lighting techniques for a nighttime architectural interior scene using IES lights and sphere lights. To follow this tutorial, you will need to have the V-Ray for Rhino plugin installed. This tutorial page is a companion that goes with the QuickStart video posted on our YouTube channel and is available here: This class is about lighting an interior scene from morning to night in 3DS Max and VRay. By the end of this course:. You will learn basic render setting in VRay. You will be able to lit any interior scene physically accurate with VRay. You will learn VRay Sun, VRay Sky and VRay light for artificial lighting.

12 Useful 3DS Max Lighting Tutorials You Should Learn

Vray interior lighting tutorial pdf

VRay Basic Lighting VRaySchool. 20/09/2019 · This page introduces a number tutorials for V-Ray for 3ds Max. Preparation for Rendering. These tutorials explain how to prepare a scene for rendering under different circumstances., V-Ray for Revit lets architects render professional-quality, high-resolution images directly from their Revit model. Browse our V-Ray for Revit tutorials. Learn advanced techniques to create stunning projects..

VRay Basic Lighting VRaySchool

VRay Basic Lighting VRaySchool. Architectural visualization tutorials, 3d models and more! Here is a list of 15 vray tutorials that I think everybody should read. It covers everything from materials and …, 17/04/2018 · In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure! This will help you get your lighting.

Rendering interior scenes with 3dsMax and V-Ray can sometimes be a daunting task. There are many ways to approach this subject, and you need a good technical understanding of V-Ray as render times are usually quite high. In this tutorial we will set up 2 different scenes with varying lighting schemes, each time render out a high quality image In this 3d Tutorial you will learn everything you need to know in order to render realistic images with 3dsmax and Vray. I will cover every aspect of the process, so you can get familiar with the tools and steps for a realistic 3d interior render. I will explain how you can get the same type of lighting …

Carlos Alvarez Velazquez Covers Interior Lighting, Material Overrides, Denoising, Tonemapping and more With Vray Maya. Lighting interior scenes is a gentle balance between science and art. Ok. that might be a bit hyperbolic, but it is a balance between understanding the technical side (what the rendering engine is doing) along with the artistic side (understanding how light affects your scene). Among a number of rendering engines, in terms of popularity, VRay has his permanent place in the lead. It is the one of the most widespread rendering plug-ins worldwide. Though, as far as I know, a great majority of VRay users have only superficial knowledge of VRay possibilities. The book might be a good occasion to change it: start learning or develop and strengthen this knowledge.

20/07/2018 · VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL – Rendering with Daylight in SketchUp! - Duration: 15:16. TheSketchUpEssentials 85,412 views. 15:16. We drove these electric cars until they DIED! 20/09/2019 · This page introduces a number tutorials for V-Ray for 3ds Max. Preparation for Rendering. These tutorials explain how to prepare a scene for rendering under different circumstances.

V-Ray for Revit lets architects render professional-quality, high-resolution images directly from their Revit model. Browse our V-Ray for Revit tutorials. Learn advanced techniques to create stunning projects. For this tutorial, keep the Sky Model to Hosek et al, keep the Turbidity to 3, and set the Size Multiplier to 15. In the Shadows toolbar, change the Time of day to late afternoon to make adding interior lights easier.. General Lighting with V-Ray Sphere Lights. Next, general lighting inside the house will be added using V-Ray Sphere Lights.Move the camera to get a better view of the second floor.

17/04/2018 · In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure! This will help you get your lighting 23/06/2011 · VRay Render Settings for Interior Visualisation VRay Render Settings for Interior Visualisation By the area In Vray Global Switches, under lighting, set default lights to off. This turns off the 3 point lighting system Autodesk 3ds Max has as default, now you have full control over all lights that you add to the scene. You can also turn displacement off (Optional). Under the geometry

Rendering interior scenes with 3dsMax and V-Ray can sometimes be a daunting task. There are many ways to approach this subject, and you need a good technical understanding of V-Ray as render times are usually quite high. In this tutorial we will set up 2 different scenes with varying lighting schemes, each time render out a high quality image The interior illuminated with natural light that we are going to render will begin to use only the photon mapping . Precondition 'that is present in the scene one or more ' photometric light sources that our case and the ' represented by the daylight system with mr sun and mrsky which are respectively a source of direct and indirect lighting . In this algorithm the indirect light is achieved

17/04/2018 · In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure! This will help you get your lighting 19/02/2010 · Discover the secrets behind properly lighting and rendering interior scenes with 3ds Max and Vray in this easy to follow, step by step walkthrough. Scene setup, modeling, texturing, lighting, and rendering for realistic output will all be discussed, so there is literally something in here for everyone! Additional Files/ Plugins:

Rendering interior scenes with 3dsMax and V-Ray can sometimes be a daunting task. There are many ways to approach this subject, and you need a good technical understanding of V-Ray as render times are usually quite high. In this tutorial we will set up 2 different scenes with varying lighting schemes, each time render out a high quality image 20/09/2019 · This page introduces a number tutorials for V-Ray for 3ds Max. Preparation for Rendering. These tutorials explain how to prepare a scene for rendering under different circumstances.

Lighting & Setting up a Realistic Render with Vray and 3ds Max by Alseso Web: www.aleso3d.com . In this tutorial you will learn how to lighting and setting up a realistic render with Vray 2.0 and 3ds max 2011, also how to use ies lights, setting lighting with vray sun and vray sky and using vray physical camera, and see how you can set up your render. Rendering interior scenes with 3dsMax and V-Ray can sometimes be a daunting task. There are many ways to approach this subject, and you need a good technical understanding of V-Ray as render times are usually quite high. In this tutorial we will set up 2 different scenes with varying lighting schemes, each time render out a high quality image

Rendering interior scenes with 3dsMax and V-Ray can sometimes be a daunting task. There are many ways to approach this subject, and you need a good technical understanding of V-Ray as render times are usually quite high. In this tutorial we will set up 2 different scenes with varying lighting schemes, each time render out a high quality image 17/04/2018 · In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure! This will help you get your lighting

Night Interior Rendering Tutorial (using vray and 3d max) the most suitable for the job is a planar vray light. For this interior, a multiplier of 4 and a pale orange hue for color where all what I needed. I got a bit lazy and did not model this lighting fixture entirely, and I just assigned a vray light material to the part that is emitting light; if I wanted to do everything from a to z Night Interior Rendering Tutorial (using vray and 3d max) the most suitable for the job is a planar vray light. For this interior, a multiplier of 4 and a pale orange hue for color where all what I needed. I got a bit lazy and did not model this lighting fixture entirely, and I just assigned a vray light material to the part that is emitting light; if I wanted to do everything from a to z

Lighting & Setting up a Realistic Render with Vray and 3ds Max by Alseso Web: www.aleso3d.com . In this tutorial you will learn how to lighting and setting up a realistic render with Vray 2.0 and 3ds max 2011, also how to use ies lights, setting lighting with vray sun and vray sky and using vray physical camera, and see how you can set up your render. 20/07/2018 · VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL – Rendering with Daylight in SketchUp! - Duration: 15:16. TheSketchUpEssentials 85,412 views. 15:16. We drove these electric cars until they DIED!

VRay The Complete Guide - Evermotion.org

Vray interior lighting tutorial pdf

Exterior Lighting QuickStart V-Ray 3.6 for SketchUp. The interior illuminated with natural light that we are going to render will begin to use only the photon mapping . Precondition 'that is present in the scene one or more ' photometric light sources that our case and the ' represented by the daylight system with mr sun and mrsky which are respectively a source of direct and indirect lighting . In this algorithm the indirect light is achieved, For this tutorial, keep the Sky Model to Hosek et al, keep the Turbidity to 3, and set the Size Multiplier to 15. In the Shadows toolbar, change the Time of day to late afternoon to make adding interior lights easier.. General Lighting with V-Ray Sphere Lights. Next, general lighting inside the house will be added using V-Ray Sphere Lights.Move the camera to get a better view of the second floor..

Lighting & Setting up a Realistic Render with Vray and 3ds Max. In this tutorial You will learn how to lit your interior scene using standard lights, like a spot light or photometric IES light. Top 5 Vray Workshop Evermotion presents, Vray Workshop Principal artist group online on Facebook., In this 3d Tutorial you will learn everything you need to know in order to render realistic images with 3dsmax and Vray. I will cover every aspect of the process, so you can get familiar with the tools and steps for a realistic 3d interior render. I will explain how you can get the same type of lighting ….

VRay The Complete Guide - Evermotion.org

Vray interior lighting tutorial pdf

Night Interior Rendering Tutorial (using vray and 3d max). VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL – Rendering with Daylight in SketchUp! In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure! 26/06/2018 · Interior Night lighting with V-Ray HDRI - Duration: 35:15. Mostafa Mahmoud 30,627 views. 35:15 . 3Ds Max 2018 Bedroom Interior Tutorial Modeling Design Vray Render + Photoshop - ….

Vray interior lighting tutorial pdf


23/06/2011 · VRay Render Settings for Interior Visualisation VRay Render Settings for Interior Visualisation By the area In Vray Global Switches, under lighting, set default lights to off. This turns off the 3 point lighting system Autodesk 3ds Max has as default, now you have full control over all lights that you add to the scene. You can also turn displacement off (Optional). Under the geometry of the render engine (VRay in this tutorial) is using real world scaling to mimic real world conditions. Let’s start with a light... Doing High Dynamic Range renderings just needs one light source: the HDR file. The light we have to use is the VrayDomeLight, which guarantees nice lighting, shadows and caustics.

In this tutorial You will learn how to lit your interior scene using standard lights, like a spot light or photometric IES light. Top 5 Vray Workshop Evermotion presents, Vray Workshop Principal artist group online on Facebook. 19/02/2010 · Discover the secrets behind properly lighting and rendering interior scenes with 3ds Max and Vray in this easy to follow, step by step walkthrough. Scene setup, modeling, texturing, lighting, and rendering for realistic output will all be discussed, so there is literally something in here for everyone! Additional Files/ Plugins:

23/06/2011 · VRay Render Settings for Interior Visualisation VRay Render Settings for Interior Visualisation By the area In Vray Global Switches, under lighting, set default lights to off. This turns off the 3 point lighting system Autodesk 3ds Max has as default, now you have full control over all lights that you add to the scene. You can also turn displacement off (Optional). Under the geometry V-Ray for SketchUp is a rendering engine equipped with Global Illumination (GI), which helps the users setup the lighting for entire scene easily. So they don't have to spend a lot of time adjusting lighting location and brightness.

V-Ray for Revit lets architects render professional-quality, high-resolution images directly from their Revit model. Browse our V-Ray for Revit tutorials. Learn advanced techniques to create stunning projects. 20/07/2018 · VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL – Rendering with Daylight in SketchUp! - Duration: 15:16. TheSketchUpEssentials 85,412 views. 15:16. We drove these electric cars until they DIED!

26/06/2018 · Interior Night lighting with V-Ray HDRI - Duration: 35:15. Mostafa Mahmoud 30,627 views. 35:15 . 3Ds Max 2018 Bedroom Interior Tutorial Modeling Design Vray Render + Photoshop - … Among a number of rendering engines, in terms of popularity, VRay has his permanent place in the lead. It is the one of the most widespread rendering plug-ins worldwide. Though, as far as I know, a great majority of VRay users have only superficial knowledge of VRay possibilities. The book might be a good occasion to change it: start learning or develop and strengthen this knowledge.

This class is about lighting an interior scene from morning to night in 3DS Max and VRay. By the end of this course:. You will learn basic render setting in VRay. You will be able to lit any interior scene physically accurate with VRay. You will learn VRay Sun, VRay Sky and VRay light for artificial lighting. VRay Basic Lighting - Downloadable DVD - Easy step-by-step 3Ds Max VRay Interior Lighting & Rendering - Video Training. Learn to make Photorealistic Images!

VRay Basic Lighting - Downloadable DVD - Easy step-by-step 3Ds Max VRay Interior Lighting & Rendering - Video Training. Learn to make Photorealistic Images! 26/06/2018 · Interior Night lighting with V-Ray HDRI - Duration: 35:15. Mostafa Mahmoud 30,627 views. 35:15 . 3Ds Max 2018 Bedroom Interior Tutorial Modeling Design Vray Render + Photoshop - …

Carlos Alvarez Velazquez Covers Interior Lighting, Material Overrides, Denoising, Tonemapping and more With Vray Maya. Lighting interior scenes is a gentle balance between science and art. Ok. that might be a bit hyperbolic, but it is a balance between understanding the technical side (what the rendering engine is doing) along with the artistic side (understanding how light affects your scene). 19/02/2010 · Discover the secrets behind properly lighting and rendering interior scenes with 3ds Max and Vray in this easy to follow, step by step walkthrough. Scene setup, modeling, texturing, lighting, and rendering for realistic output will all be discussed, so there is literally something in here for everyone! Additional Files/ Plugins:

In this 3d Tutorial you will learn everything you need to know in order to render realistic images with 3dsmax and Vray. I will cover every aspect of the process, so you can get familiar with the tools and steps for a realistic 3d interior render. I will explain how you can get the same type of lighting … 19/02/2010 · Discover the secrets behind properly lighting and rendering interior scenes with 3ds Max and Vray in this easy to follow, step by step walkthrough. Scene setup, modeling, texturing, lighting, and rendering for realistic output will all be discussed, so there is literally something in here for everyone! Additional Files/ Plugins:

In this tutorial You will learn how to lit your interior scene using standard lights, like a spot light or photometric IES light. Top 5 Vray Workshop Evermotion presents, Vray Workshop Principal artist group online on Facebook. 9. Realistically Light and Render Interior Scenes using 3ds Max and Vray. A step by step tutorial on how to properly light and render interior scenes with 3DS Max and V-ray . In this tutorial the entire process of completing the final visual like modeling, texturing, lighting, and rendering are explained well so there’s a lot for you to learn.

9. Realistically Light and Render Interior Scenes using 3ds Max and Vray. A step by step tutorial on how to properly light and render interior scenes with 3DS Max and V-ray . In this tutorial the entire process of completing the final visual like modeling, texturing, lighting, and rendering are explained well so there’s a lot for you to learn. Carlos Alvarez Velazquez Covers Interior Lighting, Material Overrides, Denoising, Tonemapping and more With Vray Maya. Lighting interior scenes is a gentle balance between science and art. Ok. that might be a bit hyperbolic, but it is a balance between understanding the technical side (what the rendering engine is doing) along with the artistic side (understanding how light affects your scene).

VRay Basic Lighting - Downloadable DVD - Easy step-by-step 3Ds Max VRay Interior Lighting & Rendering - Video Training. Learn to make Photorealistic Images! 20/07/2018 · VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL – Rendering with Daylight in SketchUp! - Duration: 15:16. TheSketchUpEssentials 85,412 views. 15:16. We drove these electric cars until they DIED!

10/10/2018 · In this tutorial we’ll go over lighting techniques for a nighttime architectural interior scene using IES lights and sphere lights. To follow this tutorial, you will need to have the V-Ray for Rhino plugin installed. This tutorial page is a companion that goes with the QuickStart video posted on our YouTube channel and is available here: VRAY INTERIOR LIGHTING TUTORIAL – Rendering with Daylight in SketchUp! In this video, learn to light an interior rendering in Vray using lighting from the exterior environment settings like the Sun, Rectangle Lights, and exposure!

V-Ray for Revit lets architects render professional-quality, high-resolution images directly from their Revit model. Browse our V-Ray for Revit tutorials. Learn advanced techniques to create stunning projects. In this 3d Tutorial you will learn everything you need to know in order to render realistic images with 3dsmax and Vray. I will cover every aspect of the process, so you can get familiar with the tools and steps for a realistic 3d interior render. I will explain how you can get the same type of lighting …