RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS PDF



Risk Assessment And Management In Construction Projects Pdf

Risk Management Practices in a Construction Project a case. ASSESSMENT OF RISK IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Shankar Neeraj1, Balasubramanian. M2 project risk management is to identify and assess the potential risks (El-Sayegh, 2008). Despite many scholars and practitioners recognizing the risk identification methods and assessment models in projects insufficient attention has been paid by researchers to select a suitable risk assessment model. This, RISK ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS The risk management process in construction is ex-treme and important. Risk measure includes risk level determination of each objective and the risk analysis estimation by applying various approaches and technol-ogy. Risk control process evaluates performance of risk control. 2.1. Risk identification Risk identification is the first and main step of.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

(PDF) Risk management in construction projects. Risk in building design and construction - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. The development of buildings is carried out in several phases, all involving hazard, uncertainty and risk., Conducting a Risk Assessment is important because it enables employers to foresee potential dangers found in the workplace, and to establish methods of control or prevention to alleviate the risks or eliminate any factors that may be detrimental to employees, clients, guests, or even passers-by..

Project risk management has been intensively discussed in recent years. Projects are becoming shared efforts of multiple parties – construction industry is a good example of an area, where the project outcome is delivered in an extremely complex actor network. Still, research on how the project risk management should be adopted to the network Risk Management – Current Issues and Challenges 430 Therefore nowadays, the risk analysis and management continue to be a major feature of the project management of construction projects in an attempt to deal effectively with uncertainty and unexpected events and to achieve project success.

performance due to a lack of formalized risk management procedures which helps to facilitate more effective risk management while allowing all project participants to develop and share a great understanding of project risk for improved performance. Mulholl. B and J. Christian (February, 1999) "Risk Assessment in Construction Schedules" suggested in construction projects. Project management functions which have the most effect on risk management plan are categorized and an analysis of key risk factors in every category is described. Finally a hierarchical risk classification to cover all the effective key risk factors in construction projects …

Project risk management is frequently overlooked yet is one of the more critical elements to successful project delivery. Generally, delivering a project’s defined scope on time and within budget are characteristics of project success. Unfortunately, these success factors are often not achieved, especially for large complex projects where both external influences and internal project Risk Management – Current Issues and Challenges 430 Therefore nowadays, the risk analysis and management continue to be a major feature of the project management of construction projects in an attempt to deal effectively with uncertainty and unexpected events and to achieve project success.

03/04/2014В В· Risk Analysis How to Analyze Risks on Your Project - Project Management Training - Duration: 3:57. Project Management Videos 24,732 views demonstrates a solid relationship between risk management and project success. Even though risk management is seen as the most challenging part in construction management, its implementation is advanced in all projects to avoid adverse consequences (Potts, 2008). It ought to be restated that risk management is not a tool which guarantees success

EFFECTS OF RISK MANAGEMENT METHODS ON PROJECT PERFORMANCE IN RWANDAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY A CASE STUDY OF MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION PROJECT OF RSSB SIBOMANA Aimable A research project submitted to the Department of Entrepreneurship, Technology, Leadership and Management in the School of Entrepreneurship, Procurement and Management … one project. Generally, risks in construction industry should be controlled and reduced during design, procurement and construction phase, and the most important activities are define risk management plan from the very beginning and to assign risks to different project members and to manage their execution. In this paper risks on a project in

in construction projects. Project management functions which have the most effect on risk management plan are categorized and an analysis of key risk factors in every category is described. Finally a hierarchical risk classification to cover all the effective key risk factors in construction projects … Risk assesment of construction projects Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 16(1):33-46 · March 2010 with 12,974 Reads How we measure 'reads'

Risk management is according to Project Management Institute (PMI) one of the nine knowledge areas and the integration of an effective risk management is considered a crucial element and essential for project success. Construction projects can be described as Risk management in construction projects Article (PDF Available) in Technological and Economic Development of Economy 21(1):65-78 В· January 2015 with 6,859 Reads How we measure 'reads'

one project. Generally, risks in construction industry should be controlled and reduced during design, procurement and construction phase, and the most important activities are define risk management plan from the very beginning and to assign risks to different project members and to manage their execution. In this paper risks on a project in performance due to a lack of formalized risk management procedures which helps to facilitate more effective risk management while allowing all project participants to develop and share a great understanding of project risk for improved performance. Mulholl. B and J. Christian (February, 1999) "Risk Assessment in Construction Schedules" suggested

Risk Management in Construction Projects

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf

The effects risk management on project performance. Risk management is according to Project Management Institute (PMI) one of the nine knowledge areas and the integration of an effective risk management is considered a crucial element and essential for project success. Construction projects can be described as, Risk Management – Current Issues and Challenges 430 Therefore nowadays, the risk analysis and management continue to be a major feature of the project management of construction projects in an attempt to deal effectively with uncertainty and unexpected events and to achieve project success..

Risk management in construction projects. book provides a review of project risk management. Managing Risk in Construction Projects. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0 632 04243 5 The book provides information about the various steps which comprise the process of risk management so as to support those professionals tasked with …, derstanding of Risk Management as a tool to manage construction projects to improve cost, timeliness and quality and to communicate effectively with stake-holders. Construction projects can be of high value and/or high risk and if not planned and managed well can easily run over time, over budget and not deliver what was originally expected..

Risk Management in Contracting for Construction Services

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf

Risk management in construction projects Technological. 03/04/2014 · Risk Analysis How to Analyze Risks on Your Project - Project Management Training - Duration: 3:57. Project Management Videos 24,732 views Project risk management is frequently overlooked yet is one of the more critical elements to successful project delivery. Generally, delivering a project’s defined scope on time and within budget are characteristics of project success. Unfortunately, these success factors are often not achieved, especially for large complex projects where both external influences and internal project.

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf


Risk management is according to Project Management Institute (PMI) one of the nine knowledge areas and the integration of an effective risk management is considered a crucial element and essential for project success. Construction projects can be described as Conducting a Risk Assessment is important because it enables employers to foresee potential dangers found in the workplace, and to establish methods of control or prevention to alleviate the risks or eliminate any factors that may be detrimental to employees, clients, guests, or even passers-by.

Risk Management – Current Issues and Challenges 430 Therefore nowadays, the risk analysis and management continue to be a major feature of the project management of construction projects in an attempt to deal effectively with uncertainty and unexpected events and to achieve project success. ASSESSMENT OF RISK IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Shankar Neeraj1, Balasubramanian. M2 project risk management is to identify and assess the potential risks (El-Sayegh, 2008). Despite many scholars and practitioners recognizing the risk identification methods and assessment models in projects insufficient attention has been paid by researchers to select a suitable risk assessment model. This

RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE DIFFERENT PHASES OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT – A STUDY OF ACTORS’ INVOLVEMENT Ekaterina Osipova 1 Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden ABSTRACT The results from a questionnaire survey of risk management in the different phases of a construction project are presented. The participants of the … Project risk management is frequently overlooked yet is one of the more critical elements to successful project delivery. Generally, delivering a project’s defined scope on time and within budget are characteristics of project success. Unfortunately, these success factors are often not achieved, especially for large complex projects where both external influences and internal project

RISK ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS The risk management process in construction is ex-treme and important. Risk measure includes risk level determination of each objective and the risk analysis estimation by applying various approaches and technol-ogy. Risk control process evaluates performance of risk control. 2.1. Risk identification Risk identification is the first and main step of Risk management in construction projects is an important process to achieve the project objectives in terms of cost, quality and time. Construction projects faces delays, cost overrun and quality

demonstrates a solid relationship between risk management and project success. Even though risk management is seen as the most challenging part in construction management, its implementation is advanced in all projects to avoid adverse consequences (Potts, 2008). It ought to be restated that risk management is not a tool which guarantees success Risk Management Plan MANAGEMENT APPROACH 3 logic, and scope of the project and examining the identified uncertainties associated with each stage of the project. Risk Assessment – Assess the risks to determine their likelihood and impact on the project’s cost, schedule, and/or work scope. This includes a qualitative and quantitative assessment

Economic risk factors involve issues or concerns associated with the macroeconomic impact in the 24 community and region where the construction project is to be located. EFFECTS OF RISK MANAGEMENT METHODS ON PROJECT PERFORMANCE IN RWANDAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY A CASE STUDY OF MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION PROJECT OF RSSB SIBOMANA Aimable A research project submitted to the Department of Entrepreneurship, Technology, Leadership and Management in the School of Entrepreneurship, Procurement and Management …

book provides a review of project risk management. Managing Risk in Construction Projects. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0 632 04243 5 The book provides information about the various steps which comprise the process of risk management so as to support those professionals tasked with … The construction industry is known for being very poor compared to other industries in the identification, assessment and management of project related risks.

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf

Risk Management in Construction Projects Author: Petr Rehacek Subject: Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Keywords: Management, project, risk, standard, construction project, objective, cost and quality Created Date: 11/23/2017 3:23:24 PM 4. Chosen methods in range of risk assessment in construction project 4.1. Risk assessment in construction project The quantification stage (assessment, analysis) will help to determine the importance of selected factors, the probability of their occurrence and the degree of impact on a construction project. For the mentioned methods/tools

Risk Management in Construction Projects IntechOpen

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf

Project Risk Management assets.kpmg. demonstrates a solid relationship between risk management and project success. Even though risk management is seen as the most challenging part in construction management, its implementation is advanced in all projects to avoid adverse consequences (Potts, 2008). It ought to be restated that risk management is not a tool which guarantees success, Risk Management Plan MANAGEMENT APPROACH 3 logic, and scope of the project and examining the identified uncertainties associated with each stage of the project. Risk Assessment – Assess the risks to determine their likelihood and impact on the project’s cost, schedule, and/or work scope. This includes a qualitative and quantitative assessment.

(PDF) Risk Management in Construction Projects

Risk Management in Construction Projects IntechOpen. 6+ Construction Risk Assessment Templates – PDF No matter where you may be or what you’re doing, there’s always a chance that something could go wrong. These instances where there’s a possibility that something may happen that can have negative effects are what you call risks, and they’re present in just about every situation no matter who you may be., Risk Assessment and Management in Construction Projects K. Jayasudha Dr. B.Vidivelli and E.R. Gokul Surjith Abstract — Construction of bridge projects are initiated in complex and dynamic problems resulting in circumstances of high uncertainty and risk, which are compounded by demanding time and cost constrains. The general methodology is to.

Risk assessment is a series of processes consisting of risk analysis, assessment of magnitude of risk, judgment on whether the risk is acceptable or unacceptable, and making and assessing risk control options, to attain this goal. Risk assessment The construction industry is known for being very poor compared to other industries in the identification, assessment and management of project related risks.

Types of risk in construction projects - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. This article needs more work and should be combined with Risk in building design and construction. understanding€of€the€project€risk€identification€process.€Thus€we€focus€our€research€on€the€ways in€which€construction€project€managers€identify€risks;€our€aim€is€to€provide€the€basis€for€a€more rigorous€approach€to€the€identification€phase€of€project€risk€management.

Risk Management in Construction Projects Author: Petr Rehacek Subject: Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Keywords: Management, project, risk, standard, construction project, objective, cost and quality Created Date: 11/23/2017 3:23:24 PM Risk in building design and construction - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. The development of buildings is carried out in several phases, all involving hazard, uncertainty and risk.

Project Risk Management. Project A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service A series of activities designed to achieve a specific outcome within a set budget and timescale. Project Management The application of knowledge, skills tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. Project Management Project Risk Management. Project A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service A series of activities designed to achieve a specific outcome within a set budget and timescale. Project Management The application of knowledge, skills tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. Project Management

1 RISK MANAGEMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION WORKS - QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF COST DEVIATIONS FROM A PROJECT OWNER'S STANDPOINT - João Ricardo Baptista Silva Abstract Construction projects are characterised by several uncertainties throughout the different various understanding€of€the€project€risk€identification€process.€Thus€we€focus€our€research€on€the€ways in€which€construction€project€managers€identify€risks;€our€aim€is€to€provide€the€basis€for€a€more rigorous€approach€to€the€identification€phase€of€project€risk€management.

Risk in building design and construction - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. The development of buildings is carried out in several phases, all involving hazard, uncertainty and risk. Risk management in construction projects Article (PDF Available) in Technological and Economic Development of Economy 21(1):65-78 В· January 2015 with 6,859 Reads How we measure 'reads'

14/10/2010В В· He is a licensed professional civil engineer in the Pakistani Engineering Council, Islamabad. He has extensive professional expertise in construction industry for managing projects and for teaching in project management, construction management, construction safety, risk management, claims and disputes resolution, and PM training. Risk management in construction projects is an important process to achieve the project objectives in terms of cost, quality and time. Construction projects faces delays, cost overrun and quality

Risk Management Practices in a Construction Project – a case study Master of Science Thesis in the Master’s Programme EWELINA GAJEWSKA MIKAELA ROPEL Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Division of Construction Management Chalmers University of Technology ABSTRACT Risk management is a concept which becomes very popular in a number of businesses. Many companies … Conducting a Risk Assessment is important because it enables employers to foresee potential dangers found in the workplace, and to establish methods of control or prevention to alleviate the risks or eliminate any factors that may be detrimental to employees, clients, guests, or even passers-by.

1 RISK MANAGEMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION WORKS - QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF COST DEVIATIONS FROM A PROJECT OWNER'S STANDPOINT - JoГЈo Ricardo Baptista Silva Abstract Construction projects are characterised by several uncertainties throughout the different various derstanding of Risk Management as a tool to manage construction projects to improve cost, timeliness and quality and to communicate effectively with stake-holders. Construction projects can be of high value and/or high risk and if not planned and managed well can easily run over time, over budget and not deliver what was originally expected.

Risk assessment is a series of processes consisting of risk analysis, assessment of magnitude of risk, judgment on whether the risk is acceptable or unacceptable, and making and assessing risk control options, to attain this goal. Risk assessment understanding€of€the€project€risk€identification€process.€Thus€we€focus€our€research€on€the€ways in€which€construction€project€managers€identify€risks;€our€aim€is€to€provide€the€basis€for€a€more rigorous€approach€to€the€identification€phase€of€project€risk€management.

1 RISK MANAGEMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION WORKS - QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF COST DEVIATIONS FROM A PROJECT OWNER'S STANDPOINT - JoГЈo Ricardo Baptista Silva Abstract Construction projects are characterised by several uncertainties throughout the different various Conducting a Risk Assessment is important because it enables employers to foresee potential dangers found in the workplace, and to establish methods of control or prevention to alleviate the risks or eliminate any factors that may be detrimental to employees, clients, guests, or even passers-by.

Project risk management is frequently overlooked yet is one of the more critical elements to successful project delivery. Generally, delivering a project’s defined scope on time and within budget are characteristics of project success. Unfortunately, these success factors are often not achieved, especially for large complex projects where both external influences and internal project Economic risk factors involve issues or concerns associated with the macroeconomic impact in the 24 community and region where the construction project is to be located.

The construction industry is known for being very poor compared to other industries in the identification, assessment and management of project related risks. Risk Management Considerations for Projects - Final Chuck Gessner January 4, 2004 Page 2 of 22 Risk Management Considerations for Projects The intent of this document is help project teams address risks during the design and construction of a project.

Risk management in construction projects: a comparative study of the different procurement options in Sweden 2007:00. Doubt is not a pleasant condition, but certainty is absurd. Voltaire . I Preface This thesis is a result of my PhD studies during 2006-2008 in the Construction Management Research Group at the Division for Architecture and Infrastructure at LuleГҐ University of Technology. The 2 3 1. Introduction This mini guide is a short form of the APM publication, Project Risk Analysis and Management (PRAM) Guide 2nd edition.1 It provides an introduction to the processes involved in project risk analysis and management, offering a simple, but robust and

Project risk analysis and management. 4. Chosen methods in range of risk assessment in construction project 4.1. Risk assessment in construction project The quantification stage (assessment, analysis) will help to determine the importance of selected factors, the probability of their occurrence and the degree of impact on a construction project. For the mentioned methods/tools, understanding€of€the€project€risk€identification€process.€Thus€we€focus€our€research€on€the€ways in€which€construction€project€managers€identify€risks;€our€aim€is€to€provide€the€basis€for€a€more rigorous€approach€to€the€identification€phase€of€project€risk€management..

ANALYSIS OF MAJOR RISKS IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf

The effects risk management on project performance. understanding€of€the€project€risk€identification€process.€Thus€we€focus€our€research€on€the€ways in€which€construction€project€managers€identify€risks;€our€aim€is€to€provide€the€basis€for€a€more rigorous€approach€to€the€identification€phase€of€project€risk€management., Risk assesment of construction projects Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 16(1):33-46 · March 2010 with 12,974 Reads How we measure 'reads'.

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf

(PDF) A REVIEW OF RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf

Risk Management Considerations for Projects. 03/04/2014В В· Risk Analysis How to Analyze Risks on Your Project - Project Management Training - Duration: 3:57. Project Management Videos 24,732 views 2 3 1. Introduction This mini guide is a short form of the APM publication, Project Risk Analysis and Management (PRAM) Guide 2nd edition.1 It provides an introduction to the processes involved in project risk analysis and management, offering a simple, but robust and.

Risk assessment and management in construction projects pdf


Project Risk Management. Project A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service A series of activities designed to achieve a specific outcome within a set budget and timescale. Project Management The application of knowledge, skills tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. Project Management in construction projects. Project management functions which have the most effect on risk management plan are categorized and an analysis of key risk factors in every category is described. Finally a hierarchical risk classification to cover all the effective key risk factors in construction projects …

03/04/2014В В· Risk Analysis How to Analyze Risks on Your Project - Project Management Training - Duration: 3:57. Project Management Videos 24,732 views Risk management in construction projects Article (PDF Available) in Technological and Economic Development of Economy 21(1):65-78 В· January 2015 with 6,859 Reads How we measure 'reads'

7.2 Actors involved in the construction project level and site organisation.. 75 7.3 Legal System for Health and Safety Risk Management at Vijana construction site .. 77 7.4 Organisational System for Health and Safety Risk Assessment, Communication and in construction projects. Project management functions which have the most effect on risk management plan are categorized and an analysis of key risk factors in every category is described. Finally a hierarchical risk classification to cover all the effective key risk factors in construction projects …

Project Risk Management. Project A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service A series of activities designed to achieve a specific outcome within a set budget and timescale. Project Management The application of knowledge, skills tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. Project Management 03/04/2014В В· Risk Analysis How to Analyze Risks on Your Project - Project Management Training - Duration: 3:57. Project Management Videos 24,732 views

14/10/2010В В· He is a licensed professional civil engineer in the Pakistani Engineering Council, Islamabad. He has extensive professional expertise in construction industry for managing projects and for teaching in project management, construction management, construction safety, risk management, claims and disputes resolution, and PM training. RISK ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS The risk management process in construction is ex-treme and important. Risk measure includes risk level determination of each objective and the risk analysis estimation by applying various approaches and technol-ogy. Risk control process evaluates performance of risk control. 2.1. Risk identification Risk identification is the first and main step of

in construction projects. Project management functions which have the most effect on risk management plan are categorized and an analysis of key risk factors in every category is described. Finally a hierarchical risk classification to cover all the effective key risk factors in construction projects … RISK ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS The risk management process in construction is ex-treme and important. Risk measure includes risk level determination of each objective and the risk analysis estimation by applying various approaches and technol-ogy. Risk control process evaluates performance of risk control. 2.1. Risk identification Risk identification is the first and main step of

Project risk management is frequently overlooked yet is one of the more critical elements to successful project delivery. Generally, delivering a project’s defined scope on time and within budget are characteristics of project success. Unfortunately, these success factors are often not achieved, especially for large complex projects where both external influences and internal project Risk Management – Current Issues and Challenges 430 Therefore nowadays, the risk analysis and management continue to be a major feature of the project management of construction projects in an attempt to deal effectively with uncertainty and unexpected events and to achieve project success.

03/04/2014В В· Risk Analysis How to Analyze Risks on Your Project - Project Management Training - Duration: 3:57. Project Management Videos 24,732 views one project. Generally, risks in construction industry should be controlled and reduced during design, procurement and construction phase, and the most important activities are define risk management plan from the very beginning and to assign risks to different project members and to manage their execution. In this paper risks on a project in

Risk management in construction projects: a comparative study of the different procurement options in Sweden 2007:00. Doubt is not a pleasant condition, but certainty is absurd. Voltaire . I Preface This thesis is a result of my PhD studies during 2006-2008 in the Construction Management Research Group at the Division for Architecture and Infrastructure at LuleГҐ University of Technology. The demonstrates a solid relationship between risk management and project success. Even though risk management is seen as the most challenging part in construction management, its implementation is advanced in all projects to avoid adverse consequences (Potts, 2008). It ought to be restated that risk management is not a tool which guarantees success

Risk in building design and construction - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. The development of buildings is carried out in several phases, all involving hazard, uncertainty and risk. Risk Assessment and Management in Construction Projects K. Jayasudha Dr. B.Vidivelli and E.R. Gokul Surjith Abstract — Construction of bridge projects are initiated in complex and dynamic problems resulting in circumstances of high uncertainty and risk, which are compounded by demanding time and cost constrains. The general methodology is to

Risk in building design and construction - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. The development of buildings is carried out in several phases, all involving hazard, uncertainty and risk. Project Risk Management. Project A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service A series of activities designed to achieve a specific outcome within a set budget and timescale. Project Management The application of knowledge, skills tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. Project Management

Risk Management – Current Issues and Challenges 430 Therefore nowadays, the risk analysis and management continue to be a major feature of the project management of construction projects in an attempt to deal effectively with uncertainty and unexpected events and to achieve project success. There is never a time when a construction company is not going to take at least a little risk with their projects. In that sense, it is no exaggeration to claim that an exhaustive risk management plan is a ‘must have’ in your construction operations. Nevertheless, putting together a functional risk management …

03/04/2014В В· Risk Analysis How to Analyze Risks on Your Project - Project Management Training - Duration: 3:57. Project Management Videos 24,732 views The construction industry is known for being very poor compared to other industries in the identification, assessment and management of project related risks.

book provides a review of project risk management. Managing Risk in Construction Projects. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0 632 04243 5 The book provides information about the various steps which comprise the process of risk management so as to support those professionals tasked with … Risk Assessment and Management in Construction Projects K. Jayasudha Dr. B.Vidivelli and E.R. Gokul Surjith Abstract — Construction of bridge projects are initiated in complex and dynamic problems resulting in circumstances of high uncertainty and risk, which are compounded by demanding time and cost constrains. The general methodology is to